Laboratory instrument for the measurement of abrasion resistance.


Rubbing action on a polymerized coating film which must resist to the friction of particles and abrasive bodies.


Material of considerable hardness, used for the preparation of raw wood and the sanding of the basecoat.


Substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction or of a process in general.


Synthetic polymer used in high performance water-based coatings. As a coating binder, acrylic resins allow the coating to last longer and to maintain their colour.


Substances, mostly chemical, suitable to confer specific properties to a product or to improve or preserve some features.


Ability of the coating to stick to a surface or to the underlying coating coat.

Alteration (chromatic)

Modification of the natural color of the wood, due mostly to fungi attacks.

Antique effect

Treatment to make the wood look older or antique.


Product avoiding yellowing effect.


Substance which, if applied to wood, gives a particular resistance, or even immunity, to the attacks of fungi (and in the alternative of insects).


Ease of application of a coating or a coating system.

Accelerated Aging Process

Processes reproducing in an artificial and accelerated way the aging process of the normal conditions of use of an object.


Capacity of adhesion between the support and the basecoat or between the basecoat and the subsequent coats.


Substance that added to a set of free particles of another material allows to obtain from them a single whole for constructive purposes.


Substance protecting the coating, in its container, and the wood from the aggression of micro-organisms existing in the air.


Flaw occurring with the formation of blisters in the coating film.

Beading machine

Machines used in the field of the wood to apply a plastic or wooden edge to panels.

Bénard cells

The evaporation of the components, after the application of a covering enamel, changes the surface tension of the coating product since a variation of the concentration in the system is determined. At the same time the viscosity value of the applied coating also varies and ascensional currents of solvent are created from the inner coats towards the surface and this causes turbulence inside the product which influences the surface features. The most volatile and lighter particles are transported on the surface while the heavy ones, due to their different density and size, remain at the bottom. On the surface of the coating film the stains of different sizes are called Bénard cells. These cells have a high tension at the edges which tends to decrease towards the central areas.


Capacity of the coating product to cover the original colour.


Product having a fundamental role for the final result of the entire coating system, increasing its resistance to the various chemical-physical stresses.


Tendency of the dried coating film to crack or chip when subjected to deformation stresses.


Anomaly of a coating caused by the incorporation of moisture and / or air during the drying phase and can be caused by heat and by chemical and / or atmospheric agents.

Brush (1)

Tool for manual application of coating products.

Brush (2) (application)

Manual application of the coating by means of the brush.

Bleeding (or “bleed through”)

Discolouration of the original coating in the repairing enamel film.


Cleaning of the surface to be painted from dust residues using a fiber or fabric brush.


Glueing between two coated surfaces that come into contact at high temperatures and pressures.

Coating booth

Structure in which the coating is sprayed.


Substances which can change the chemical-mechanical resistance features of the coatings.


Chemical reaction in which two or more components of coating products, appropriately mixed, begin to harden to create the film of coating.


Chemical substance capable of causing catalysis, acting during a chemical reaction.

Coating system

(1) Application procedures of coating products on objects, consisting in application of dyes, basecoat, sanding and topcoat.
(2) Coating systems (types of)
- Flow coating (see "Flow Coating")
- Immersion (see "Diving")
- By Brush (see "Brush")
- By Roller (see "Roller")
- Spray (see "Spray gun")
- Spray (see "Spray")
- A rag (see "Rag (2) (application)")
- Electrostatics (see "Spray gun")
- Curtain coating: application by a curtain of coating that falls perpendicular to the object to be painted on a conveyor belt.


Solvent which is introduced into water-based coatings in order to facilitate the formation of the film at ambient temperature.


Capacity of the coating film to withstand certain cycles of low and high temperatures without cracking.


It is made of organic and inorganic pigments. The variations that can be obtained are almost endless. The colour shades can be customized or made according to recognized references: British Standard - Munsell - NCS - RAL- Pantone. The degree of tonality of a colour can be pastel (very light) - medium (medium intensity) - strong (concentrated). Depending on the used pigments, it is possible to obtain light resistances of different types: low - medium - high.


Union of different liquid products that create a stable transparent solution without increasing the viscosity of the system.


Property of a body to transmit electrical charges, used in the electrostatic application of coating products.


Anomaly of the coating film consisting in cavities of different diameters over it.


Separation process of the components of a homogeneous mixture, based on the distribution of its components between two phases, one stationary and one moving along a defined direction.

Chemical formula

Representation indicating which and how many atoms compose the molecule of a substance, also showing their arrangement in space.


Container made of a sheet of soft iron coated on the two surfaces by a protective layer of tin, sealed, mostly parallelepiped, assigned to contain flammable liquids.

Colour chart

Group of colour samples joined together on one side.

Closed pore

When the wood grain is not visible.

Cissing (fishing eye)

Defect of a coating that shrinks from more or less extended areas, leaving uncovered the underlying substrate or coat.


Material made of a mixture of substances (drying oils, natural or synthetic resins, cellulose derivatives) suspended in a liquid or dissolved in a solvent. It is able to dry, creating a very adherent and resistant film.
They are divided into:
- NITRO coating products
- POLYURETHANE coating products
- POLYESTER coating products
- SYNTHETIC coating products
- ACID CATALYSIS coating products
- ACRYLIC coating products
- UV coating products.

Coating systems (2) (types of)

- Flow coating (see "Flow Coating")
- Immersion (see "Diving")
- By Brush (see "Brush")
- By Roller (see "Roller")
- Spray (see "Spray gun")
- Spray (see "Spray")
- A rag (see "Rag (2) (application)")
- Electrostatics (see "Spray gun")
- Curtain coating: application by a curtain of coating that falls perpendicular to the object to be painted on a conveyor belt.


Anomaly of the coating film which shows cracks on the surface and / or in depth.


Degradation of the coating film due to the decomposition of the pigments on the painted surface.

Coating system (1)

Application procedures of coating products on objects, consisting in application of dyes, basecoat, sanding and topcoat.

Curtain coater

Machine creating a continuous drop veil of coating product, under which the products to be painted run on a flat surface.

Cloth (1)

Soaked fabric suitable for applying paint.

Cloth (2) (application)

Manual application with a cloth soaked of product.


Property of the coating products to cover the colour of the support.


Mass of the unit volume of a material, usually defined in gr / cm³ or kg / dm³.


System consisting in several phases in which one of the phases is continuous and disperses the other(s).


Evaporation phase of the volatile components: diluents, solvents etc. with subsequent polymerization of the resins, which can take place with or without the association of a specific hardener.

Dipping (application)

Application by immersion of the object in a tank with controlled speed extraction, to obtain a uniform coating.

Drying time

Time necessary to the coating film to harden.


Quantity of diluent expressed in parts: weight or volume, added to 100 parts of a coating product, to change its application viscosity.

Dust-free time

Time process, after the application of the coating on the substrate, after which dust does not stick on the coating film.


Characteristic of a dried coating not showing cracks in the film, when mechanically stressed.


Dispersion of a fluid in the form of drops in another non-miscible fluid.


Denomination of the coating, containing colouring pigments which make it matt.


Drying phase carried out between two consecutive coating applications.

Flow-coating (Application)

Application system through controlled gravity flow of a coating over the substrate.


Molecule, the simplest of aldehydes. Formaldehyde is a molecule that also has two insidious characteristics: high diffusion in the air and high toxicity. In certain concentrations, it may cause irritation to the respiratory tract and to the eyesight, especially to those suffering from allergies and asthma. If ingested or inhaled in large quantities, formaldehyde is lethal. Formaldehyde is used in the composition of resins widely used in the production of manufactured articles, coatings, glues, insulating foams. In coatings, formaldehyde is appreciated for its triple function:
- antibacterial
- antifermentative
- anti-mould.


Substance that defends the wood from the degrading action of moulds and fungi.


Organism without chlorophyll, which feeds at the expense of elaborated organic materials. These materials may be residues of organisms that were living once, or an integral part of active organisms. The importance of the fungus in the field of wood is particularly notable for the phenomenon of destruction and disorganization of the wooden body that the fungus itself causes.

Fire prevention

Operation to make an object less easily combustible.

Flame maple

Aspect of the wood having stripes, lines and veins of a different colour from the background, with a sinuous pattern like the one of the waves of the sea.


Thin coat applied over a surface.


Phenomenon for which small flakes of coating lose adhesion from the substrate.

Fire-retardant coating

Coating making a material resistant to fire or limiting the development of a combustion.


Substance with high filling power and good sanding features used to smooth the support and fill the cracks.

Fibres raising

Phenomenon consisting in a rise in the wood fibres due to the contact between the water or the solvent contained in the coating.


Reflection of the coating film hit by the incident light.

Gas chromatography

Analytical chemistry method that separates the substances composing a gaseous mixture.

Gas chromatograph

Tool used to determine the composition of a mixture of chemicals.


Instrument used to measure specular reflection gloss of a surface.


Gr/sq. mt of a coating product to apply.


Flaw creating during the drying phase, when the solvent and the air cannot evaporate, due to the formation of a film on the surface.


Characteristic of a coating film to resist mechanical stresses: scratches, shocks, rubs, pressures, etc.


Tool measuring humidity in the air.


Substance used in formulation of a glue mixture, added with the aim of promoting or controlling the polymerization reaction of the glue.


Botanical term that designates wood with a narrow cellular structure.


Partial drying time after the application of a coating film on the substrate, where it is possible to handle the painted article without leaving the fingerprint.

Impregnating stain

Liquid coating product that penetrates into the wood, modifying the characteristics of the surface without forming a film. It protects the wood from the attack of moulds and fungi and reduces the demolition action of solar radiations.


Generic name of the isocyanic acid salts.

Infrared Lamps

Lamps that make the solvents evaporate and therefore facilitate the drying of the coatings.

Lacquered wood

Object coated with lacquer.

Medium Density Fibreboard

Panel made of a very fine wood fibre bound by a very strong adhesive. It is the easiest type to paint.


In chemistry, crystalline colorless substance used for the preparation of a range of resins.


Effect for which a colour, which has the same shade with the same light, changes colour with different light sources.


Tool having the purpose of mixing two or more substances, allowing a variation in the proportion of the components required.


Process for which two or more substances, even of different viscosities, are mixed.


Humidity rate of the wood substrate to be painted, ideal between 8% and 14%.

Neutral color

Color neither transparent nor pigmented.


Product obtained from the nitration of cellulose. Its most important use is the manufacture of coatings and enamels.


Substance or product which avoids yellowing.

Orange peel

Flaw of the surface of the dried film.


Products having protective or decorative functions.


Condition of non-reflection of the light.

Overspray condition

Amount of coating that disperses in the air during spray applications.

Open pore

When the wood grain is clearly visible.

Over-coating capability

Capabillity of being painted several times.


Flaw caused by microscopic holes in the film of a coated product.


Substance releasing, under exposure to UV lights, substances that activate the polymerization reactions of UV polyester and acrylic coatings.


Characteristic of a coating which does not alter its color when exposed to light.

Paint sheen

Specific unit of measurement used to determine the gloss level of a coating product. The values are expressed as a percentage and define the appearance of the surface of a coating film, after drying, as a function of the incident light specularly reflected from the surface of the coating. The evaluation scale varies from a minimum value of 0 - non-reflecting surface, to the maximum value of 100, total reflection of incident light. In general, the brightness or opacity value of a product is indicated by the following terms:
- Intense matt = gloss degrees from 1 to 10
- Matt = gloss degrees from 11 to 30
- Middle average = gloss degrees from 31 to 40
- Semi matt = gloss degrees from 41 to 50
- Semi shiny = gloss of brightness from 51 to 80
- Shiny = gloss degrees from 80 to 100.


International colour identification system. The name comes from the US company specialized in technologies for graphics, colour nomenclature and production of the identification system of the latter.

Plane (n.)

Tool for smoothing wood.

Plane (v.)

Smooth and polish the wood with the plane.


Coloured substances giving to a coating the desired color tone.


Pigmented coating forming a covering film, when applied on a support


Macromolecule consisting of a large number of molecular groups, joined as a chain by the same type of bond.


Synthetic fibres with excellent elastic characteristics, good dyeing properties, high resistance to solvents and light.


Anomaly of the coating film that has microscopic holes reaching the support.


Time within which it is possible to apply the catalyzed coating before its solidification.


Process for purifying the air from dust particles and impurities in a painting room.


Pigmented product used as first coat and characterized by a great adherence to the support.


Product with linear or variously shaped dimensions.


Anomaly due to the presence of bubbles, granules or micro holes on the film surface.

Peeling off

Detachment of the coating film from the substrate or from an underlying coat in the form of leaves or scales.

Queue de vache

Abnormal colouring of the wood, which spreads from the sides to the heart with the shape of longitudinal flames.


Accumulation during vertical application of the coating with effects of drops. This flaw is due to the excess of applied paint.


Instrument used in radiometry to measure the flow of electromagnetic radiation.


Standardised colour scale used mainly in the field of coverings and coatings.


Science that studies the characteristics of deformation and sliding of materials under the action of external forces.


Tool used to calculate the rheology of products.


Generic name of natural or synthetic products characterized by having more or less marked plastic properties.


Additive product which facilitates spreading the coating.

Roller (1)

Rotary brush suitable for manual application of coatings.

Roller (2) (application)

Application of coating substances with a roller.


Drying time necessary to stack painted objects, without the risk of damaging each other.

Spontaneous combustion

Ability of a substance which can ignite spontaneously.


Usually made of paper or cloth, it is used for sanding the substrate to be coated or to sand the previously applied coats. This type of paper has a part uniformly sprinkled with grains of different sizes whose units of measure are the meshes contained in a square inch (6.45 sq/cm) of the sieve, through which the abrasive grains of the paper have passed. The following table shows the most common grain sizes used:
- 40 - 60 - 80 extra coarse
- 100 - 120 - 150 coarse
- 180 - 200 - 240 medium
- 280 - 320 - 360 fine
- 400 - 500 - 600 very fine
- 700 - 800 - 900 ultrafine


Operation preparing the support to receive the first coat of coating through the use of papers, or other abrasive means.


Mark of abrasion on a surface.


Product applied to prevent contact with the surface of the substrate and the subsequent coats of coating.


Botanical term designating wood with a wide cell structure, typical of conifers.

Solid wood

Portion of wood obtained from inner part of the of the tree (trunk), in particular from the heartwood (the oldest part).


Abrasive tool used for sanding operations.


Process assigned to eliminate irregularities on a surface using abrasive materials.

Spray gun

Tool for painting.
Types of equipment:
Spray gun with cup
Spray gun with tank under pressure
Airless spray gun
Air-Mix spray gun (mixed air)
Electrostatic, air or mixed air spray gun that exploits the attraction of the support towards the coating, to which is given an electric charge opposite to the one of the support itself.

Spray (application)

Spray - application of spray coating with spray gun or similar tool;
Airless - to spray the nebulized mixture without air, at medium-high and high variable pressures (from about 120 to 250 atm);
Air-mix - for spraying in intermediate conditions of nebulization, between air and airless.
Electrostatics: application carried out by means of an electric field created between the nebulizing system and the substrate to be coated.

Solid content

Part of the coating product remaining in the film after drying. With over 40% of solid content there is high coverage with 35% -40% medium-high coverage; with less than 35% medium-low coverage.


Modification of a coating film after the absorption of liquids and vapours.


Anomaly of a coating pulling back from the edges of the support during the formation of the film.


Tool used to measure the hardness of minerals.


Any solid surface suitable for receiving a coating system.


Synonym of “support”.


Synonym of “tone” or “coloring matter”, that constitutes the tone itself.


Anomaly due to the non-perfect adhesion between the different coats due to the too long interval of time between them.


Study of electromagnetic spectrum.


Tool allowing to study an applied product or a support through inspection and characterization, using both visual and chemical contrasts.


Any tool allowing to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, or the properties of light according to its wavelength.


Product that lowers viscosity, facilitating the application and the spreading of the coating.

Silver Stains

White-silver stains formed between the coating and the support due to the non-perfect adhesion of the coating.


Liquid that modifies the viscosity, the drying time of the coatings, the wetting of the substrate, the application and the film-forming distension.


The last coat of the coating system. It can be transparent or pigmented, with different types of appearance.

Tongue and groove board

Wooden boards with grooves on the sides called male and female, which can be used for various purposes, especially in building field in the covering of walls and ceilings.

Tintometric System

System allowing to obtain dyes, using volumetric or gravimetric formulas, with electronic or manual tintometers.


Feature of a coating that does not mask the appearance of the support.


Equipment dosing base colours and obtaining a pre-established colour, based on a sample case that can reach thousand colours.


Property of a coating product to remain adherent to the vertical support and allows the application without sagging.

Thickness gauge

Tool used for measuring the wet thickness of the applied coating.


Tool combining a thermometer and a hygrometer, to measure the temperature and humidity of the painting environment, respectively.


Family of tropical hardwood trees. Their wood is used for the construction of objects for exterior, ship decks, musical instruments etc. This type of timber is easily workable despite its hardness.


Chemical substance existing in plant extracts able to combine with proteins of leather in insoluble complexes, to prevent the putrefaction of proteolytic enzymes and to transform it into leather.

UV absorbers

Chemicals that stop ultraviolet radiation of the solar spectrum before it reaches the wood.

UNI standards

Rules relating to the tests to determine the quality of the finished surface of the coated articles. The UNI EN standards are those recognized in Europe.

Ultraviolet radiation

Electromagnetic radiation, belonging to the electromagnetic spectrum, with a wavelength between visible light (to the human eye) and the one of X-rays.

UV Lamps

Lamps whose ultraviolet rays harden some types of resin-based coatings.


Fluidity degree of a coating: it must be generally high for spray application, medium for application with curtain coater, low for roller or reverse applications.


Resin soluted in solvent or water improving the application of dyes.


Process through which a liquid and a solid surface come into contact.

Wood veneer

Carpentry operation to cover a non-fine wood (or a panel) with a very thin veneer of wood.


Wrinkle-shaped anomaly occurring when a film dries on the surface much more quickly than in depth.


Animal that feeds on wood.


Procedure because of which the coating tends to become yellow or yellowish.


Paintable square meters with 1 Kg of coating ready to use.